Python is an object-oriented interpreted language that is easy to use. which can run on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X plus more.

The creator of python is Guido van Rossum who was an employee of google while he was creating the python language.

Python logo

Python supports basic data types such as numbers and strings. Also more complex types such as lists and dictionaries(which is similar to arrays and hashes for other languages).

Python also have several programming paradigms such as Procedural, Functional, and Object-oriented Programming. This convenient for a lot of programmers since it is more flexible.

Python is strongly typed so adding strings and numbers are not permitted and will give an error but it is also dynamically typed which means there is no need to worry about variable declarations.



Hash tables are used to store key-value pairs. A structure that can map keys and values.

It’s great to use because it is fast to map, add, and delete value.

A key and value will be paired together to have a specific location. When finding a key the value will be returned. For example in banks they account number which is the key and the value is the information inside the accounts that is stored. It is easier to find and store.

Hash-tables in different languages

  1. JavaScript- Object and Maps.

2. Java, Go, and Scala- Maps.

3. Ruby- Hashes.

4. Python- Dictionaries.

Using this are one of the most common actions we do in Computer Science.



Similar to binary search trees but with different set of rules.

There are two different Binary heaps

  1. Max Binary Heap which has the largest value on the root node and parent node should always be larger than child node.

2. Min Binary Heap which is the opposite of the max. The root node is the Lowest value and the parent node is always larger than the child node.



The process of visiting each node in a tree data structure exactly once. Traversals are classified on which order the nodes are visited.

The order of the numbers doesn’t need to be like a Binary search tree. It can be all jumbled and still be a tree graph in which it is not order lower from the left and higher to the right.

There are many ways of traversing a tree.

There is Breadth first search which will start from the root going down to each node until the last node that is in the bottom. It should go across the siblings. For example.